California Studies Association

The latest news, events, and perspectives from the CSA


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Betty Reid Soskin accepts 2016 Carey McWilliams award

bra-at-csa1Ever since 2002, the California Studies Association has presented the Carey McWilliams Award to a writer, scholar or artist who lives up to the best tradition of McWilliams’ work. That is, someone whose artistic vision, moral force and intellectual clarity give voice to the people of California, their needs and desires, sufferings, struggles and triumphs. At a deeply moving event held on October 9, this year’s award was presented to Betty Reid Soskin.

A political activist raised in Oakland and Berkeley, and currently America’s oldest park ranger, at 94 years, Betty Reid Soskin currently works as an interpretive ranger at the Rosie the Riveter World War II Home Front National Historical Park in Richmond, California. Her participation and activism in the creation of the park itself was instrumental in the ways Rosie the Riveter incorporates and memorializes the African American history of Richmond and the greater Bay Area region.

In choosing Soskin as this year’s Carey McWilliams awardee, CSA recognized her creative and political work in contributing to historical knowledge of California, and especially the experiences of African Americans during and after World War II. Accompanying Ms. Reid at the award was Tom Leatherman, Superintendent of four National Park Service historic sites in the East Bay. Below is her acceptance speech.

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The National Park Service [celebrating its centennial] only has five years on me!

In 1942 I came into Richmond as a clerk in a Jim Crow segregated union hall… that would be decades before the racial integration of the labor movement. So, in order to comply with [Henry J.] Kaiser’s wishes, labor created what was called “auxiliaries” – a fancy name for Jim Crow, One in Sausalito, one in West Oakland, the other at Richmond – Boilermaker’s Auxiliary #36, which is where I went every day.

If you’d asked me at the time, I would have told you all the shipyard workers were black. They were the only people I saw every day. The people who came up to my window to have their addresses changed, which is what I was doing on 3×5” file cards to save the world for democracy. And, as we all know, it worked.

I would return 15 years ago to Richmond, after more than 20 years as a suburban housewife, after raising four kids to adulthood, after outliving two husbands, after learning lots of lessons over lots of decades. I returned to Richmond as a Field Representative of the California State Assembly. I’d started under Dion Aroner, and when she termed out I stayed on as a Field Representative for her successor, Loni Hancock, who herself is now terming out.

That arc of my life, from when I was 20 to 15 years ago, is a solid indication of how much social change has happened in this nation in those intervening years. That’s not, by any means, a case of personal achievement. Not for one minute. That’s an indication of what we all did, all of us, black and brown, and yellow, and straight and gay, and trans, it’s what we all did. Right here, in the Bay Area, during those years, from 1942 to 1945.

And some of us did it kicking and screaming. Some of us are still kicking and screaming. But nonetheless, because of what happened right here, enough of us completed that full trajectory that my life so well indicates. It’s still out of the greater Bay Area that social change continues to radiate out into the rest of the country. That’s something we can all buy into, that’s something we lived.

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There were lots of steps in that process. But only Henry Kaiser would dare to bring in a workforce of 98,000 black and white southerners into a city with a population of 23,000. He did that not only because he knew he could revolutionize shipbuilding by introducing the mass production techniques Henry Ford used in the auto industry, but he knew where the greatest pool of available workers lay in the country – in five southern states: Mississippi, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana.

He brought people into a city who would not be sharing drinking fountains, schools, hospitals, housing, even cemeteries – any kind of public accommodations –for another 20 years back in their places of origin. That’s would not be happening until the 1960s.This was 1942. With no chance for diversity training or focus groups!

They had to negotiate, at the individual level, every single day, how to get through it without killing each other.

If you knew the sequence in which they were hired – first it was the men who were too old to fight, then boys too young to be drafted, then single white women. When that pool was exhausted, married white women. In 1943 the first black men were hired only as trainees and helpers, to do the heavy lifting for the women they’d brought on board.

And though there were some, few, black women who worked as laborers picking up trash and sweeping the decks while other people worked. It wasn’t until late 1944 and early 1945 when black women began to be trained as welders.

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If you know this sequence, then you know that those pictures of all of us – black and brown and yellow and straight and gay, all standing together having our pictures taken as brothers and sisters expressing the cooperation of the great Second World War brotherhood period – we have to know it was late in the war, because you couldn’t have gotten them to stand together and have their pictures taken in 1942.

But those pictures indicate, solidly, the pace of social change, which set us up for what was to happen in the 1960s. Those people were all living under the common threat of Fascism and world domination, and they could only take on the mission of their leader, which was to build ships faster than the enemy could sink them. They were working around the clock, three shifts a day, 364 days a year.

Henry Kaiser, a man I’m told referred to the bow of a ship as “the pointy end,” completed 747 ships in three years and eight months. And that was enough.

That social change, set up in those days, has significance for all our lives. Social change continues to radiate out from where we are into the rest of the country. We have been leading since 1942. And that’s the story I get to tell. I may be leading the only Federally-funded revolution in the country.

We are all ready to have these conversations now, we are ready at our park. And across the country, that’s beginning to happen. It’s possible now because, as Tom [Leatherman] says, it’s not just the environmental movement, or protecting the wildlife, or the protection of historic wildlands. What we are dealing with now, ever since about 1970, is the history and culture of this country. It’s now possible to revisit almost any era in this nation – the heroic places, the contemplative places, the scenic wonders, the shameful places, and the painful places, in order to own that history so that we may process it in order to forgive ourselves in order that we may all be able to move into a more compassionate future. And the National Park Service is leading that fight.

Thank you so much for this award. I am deeply honored.

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[Thanks to Lisbet Tellefsen for the recording from which this transcript was made. Kaiser shipyard newspaper illustrations by Emmy Lou Packard. Photos are by Bryan Gibel, the director/cinematographer behind Sign My Name to Freedom, a feature-length documentary film in production about Betty Reid Soskin’s work as a singer/songwriter during the 1960s and 1970s, and the great social transformations she’s participated in over nine decades in California.]


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Oppositional print shops of the SF Bay Area

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Richard Krech, “Edna,” and a .410 shotgun, at the boneyard, 1968. Photo by Harold Adler, all rights reserved.

During the 1960s there was a powerful confluence of movements, and much of that vibrance has been missed in current histories. I’ve been researching the swath of print shops that in the terminology of today’s post-Occupy world would be called the media outlets of the 99%. These were run by poets, communists, black nationalists, Vietnam veterans, Raza activists, pot smokers, free speechers and liberated women, all struggling to get their message out. My most recent listing is a local shop I’d never heard of, Noh Directions Press. My curiosity was aroused when I noticed their logo on a poster I’m cataloging for the Oakland Museum of California.

I love a challenge, and after email queries, phone calls, institutional researching, false leads, and lots of editorial back-and-forth I drew out a description and a stunning photo. This is the kind of documentation of our own history we have to do before it’s too late to get it right, or someone else will get it wrong.

-Lincoln Cushing


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Strikes, smog, and steel – Fontana, 1972

I have an interesting job – I’m an archivist who gets to write history for a national health care organization. Here is a story I recently put up on our blog that looks at the intersection of corporate public relations and public health. Sometimes (Hell, usually) history is complicated.

“Can heavy industry be a good neighbor? That was one of the challenges facing the Kaiser Steel plant in Fontana, California, in 1972.” Read more here.

Lincoln Cushing
Digital Archivist
Kaiser Permanente Heritage Resources

"Aerial photographs during the strike" Kaiser Steel, Fontana 1972


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Gray Brechin Ph.D. Lecture – The First “Big Game” at Cal: John Galen Howard vs. Julia Morgan & Bernard Maybeck

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Lecture hosted by the Institute of Classical Architecture and Art – Northern California
Monday, May 13, 2013 – 6:00pm
The Walt Disney Family Museum, San Francisco

Gray Brechin’s talk will illustrate University of California Berkeley campus architectural triumphs, such as the Hearst Greek Theatre, Hearst Mining Building, and Hearst Gymnasium, which were born from spirited competition between three of the Bay Area’s most distinguished architects.
For more information, see the ICAA-NC website.


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Web resource on Berkeley historical landmarks and subjects

The Berkeley Historical Plaque Project has produced over 100 actual and virtual markers of this city’s rich culture. It’s a great example of using the Web to share history and geographical content. Subjects include a huge range –  fitness guru Jack Lalanne, film critic Pauline Kael, the Patty Hearst kidnapping, and environmentalist David Brower.
My own contribution was an illustrated essay on
Sidewalk Contractor Stamps. [LMC]Image


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Wherever There’s a Fight!

San Francisco is rich in civil rights history – but you may have walked past certain street corners many times and not realized that battles were fought there for labor rights, lesbian and gay equality, freedom of expression, disability rights and more.   Join Elaine Elinson and Stan Yogi, coauthors of Wherever There’s a Fight:  How Runaway Slaves, Suffragists, Immigrants, Strikers, and Poets Shaped Civil Liberties in California takes us on a virtual tour that uncovers San Francisco’s hidden history – from the Yick Wo Laundry, whose owner challenged anti-Chinese laws,  to the Votes for Women Club where working women organized their victorious campaign for suffrage, to the site of a police raid on a lesbian and gay New Year’s Eve gala that predated Stonewall.

Wednesday, February 13 from 6:30 – 8 PM, at the San Francisco Main Public Library.


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Recent California books on community graphic art

These three titles each provide ample evidence that graphic artists of the American West, and especially the San Francisco Bay Area, have been passionate social antennae adept at revealing early on social issues that presage national and even international ones. [LMC]

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Hobos to Street People: Artists’ Responses to Homelessness from the New Deal to the Present, by Art Hazelwood. Freedom Voices Press, 2011.

Curated and edited by Art Hazelwood, this book also serves as an illustrated catalog for a travelling exhibition. It examines social stereotypes about our populations that have fallen through the “safety net” from the Great Depression to our current Wall Street-fueled miasma. Social justice artists from the 1930s are mashed up with those of today, including Doug Minkler, Jos Sances, David Bacon, and Eric Drooker.  More than just an aesthetic examination, it explores the analyses and community-based institutions that challenge this tragic byproduct of capitalism.

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Notes from a Revolution: Com/Co, The Diggers, & the Haight, by Kristine McKenna and David Hollander. Foggy Notion Books, 2012.

The Diggers were one of the legendary Bay Area countercultural institutions of the late 1960s.  They used street theater, modern communications systems (e.g., the Gestetner duplicator), humor, poetry, and a passion for liberation to challenge the dark side of private property and corporate greed. They were outrageous, wild, and very subversive. The text includes interviews coupled with reproductions of their colorful and evocative flyers. Not indexed, but includes a helpful timeline.

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Art of the Dead: A Celebration of the Artists Behind the American Rock Poster Movement, edited by Phil Cushway, 2012 (self-published)

Rather than just another rock poster book, this one explores how the dynamic evolution of a unique band – The Grateful Dead – spurred artists to push technological limits and breed a distinct graphic style. Cushway has done his homework and knows what he’s talking about, but he lets others tell the story. Interviews and annotations help the viewer to examine cryptic typography, layered imagery, and the magic of offset printing. Richly illustrated with beautiful reproductions of work ranging from the famous (Wes Wilson, Stanley Mouse, Rick Griffin…) to the unknown. Indexed.